In 1919, the Rowlatt Act created opposition all over India. And this gave opportunity for M K Gandhi to get into national stage. And later Khilafat movement also merged with this movement. During 1920, M K Gandhi announced Non Cooperation Movement as a sequel of Rowlatt Act, Jalianwala Bagh massacre and Khilafat movement. This Non Cooperation movement widened the social base of the protest and Hindus and Muslims were participated together. This movement brought the government to standstill due to boycott. But due to Chauri Choura incident where many policemen were burnt alive inside police station by the protesters, this movement was suspended by M K Gandhi. And the movement failed to achieve its demands.
Later, the non-violent civil disobedience was demonstrated in Bardoli with the demand of cancelling the increase in tax. And it proved effective. The success at Bardoli quickened the temper of Congress and during 1930 M K Gandhi started Civil Disobedience Movement with his famous Dandi march to break the Salt Law of British as a symbol of Indian people's refusal to live under the British rule. British government ruthlessly tried to suppress the movement. And the movement was temporarily suspended due to Gandhi-Irwin pact. But with the coming of new viceroy lord Willingdon situation got reversed and Gandhi returned from Second Round Table Conference as dejected person and rejuvenated the Civil Disobedience Movement. Anyhow the tempo of the movement was slackened during 1933. Gandhi advised suspension of the movement and continuation of individual sathyagraha. However, the movement came to an end during 1934 without any result.
Viewing these above movements, J L Nehru criticized Gandhian strategy as struggle-true... struggle-truce... without any real victory. But Gandhi had the the view that any mass movement cannot be continued indefinitely. So, when he sensed the intensity of the protest is loosing, then he went for a compromise, because morale of the participants is to be considered. So, it is better to use the truce-time for some constructive work to energize the masses.