Saturday, April 27, 2013

How Afghanisthan became "Heart of Asia"?

    Afghanistan is a landlocked country which shares border with India, Pakistan, China, Iran, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.

Afghanistan is considered as a volatile state due to its instability caused by various terrorist groups. A weak Afghanistan government may not be able to contain the terrorist activities that happens on its soil. So, the neighboring countries comes to its help and development. With this view some western powers along with neighbors of Afghanistan help a conference on Istanbul (Turkey) on 2011. This is also known as "Istanbul conference".

How the name came?
    In the "Istanbul conference", Afghanistan was recognized as the "Heart of Asia" and the conference expressed its support for Afghanistan led peace and reconstruction process. 

The members of the "Heart of Asia" group were,  Afghanistan, Turkey, Pakistan, India, Iran, China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Saudi Arabia and the UAE.

The observers are: France, Canada, the EU, Germany, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Spain, Norway, the UK, the US and the UN.

The phrase "Heart of Asia" was taken from a poem written by Iqbal, the national poet of Pakistan.

What is "Heart of Asia" Ministerial Conference?
    This conference was convened on June 2012 as a follow-up meet for the "Istanbul process". 

The second meet of "Heart of Asia" Ministerial Conference was held recently (April 2013). This meet was more about, "After withdrawal of USA from Afghanistan, how our group can help the peace and reconstruction process in Afghan".

Want to know more click here (official site of that conference)

Indian Nino and Indian Monsoon

How monsoon actually works in general ?

    During summer, the landmass gets heated up and the air near the land gets warm and goes up. At the same time, the air above the ocean is relatively cool and travel towards land to fill the gap created by the warm air. This is like the landmass is taking a huge breathe. So, this cool moisture filled air from ocean gives rain to the landmass.

    But the above situation will get disturbed, when the surface of the ocean also becomes hot. So, the warm ocean surface and warm landmass competes for cold air which results in deficit in monsoon. This happens during the El-Nino years when the entire pacific becomes warmer.

What are the things that impacts Indian monsoon?

    The El-Nino and IOD are two of the many phenomenons that influence the Indian monsoon. Some years El-Nino will have strong influence on monsoon and in some other years IOD will have strong influence. So, monsoon prediction is difficult.

What is Indian Nino?

    It is a phenomenon where sea surface temperature becomes warmer and colder alternatively between eastern and western part of Indian Ocean. It is also called Indian Ocean Dipole. It is irregular in nature.

How does it happen?

    This phenomenon occurs in three phases. One is "positive" Indian Ocean Dipole, in this scenario the western part of the Indian ocean becomes warmer than usual. So, it brings heavy rains to eastern Africa and Indian subcontinent. The another ones is "negative" Indian Ocean Dipole, here the eastern part of the Indian ocean becomes warmer and leaves the eastern Africa and India in drought. This phenomenon also has a "neutral" phase.

Sunday, April 21, 2013

Suggested Readings for Tamil Literature

Some of the books mentioned below are readily available to read on the internet itself and the links are provided for the same. But readers are advised to buy the book.

Tamil mozhi varalaru – Su. Sakthivel (To buy click here)
Mozhi nool – Mu. Varadarasanar (To buy click here)
Mozhi varalaru – Mu. Varadarasanar (To buy click here)
Tamil ilakkiya varalaru – Mu. Varadarasanar (To buy click here)

Tamil ilakkiya varalaru – Thamizannal
Tamil ilakkiya varalaru – Madhu Sa. Vimalanandam (To buy click here)
Oppilakkiya kotpaadu – Ka.Na.Kailasapathy 

Oppiyal Ilakkiyam - Ka. Kailasapathy (To read the book)
Naatupura iyal aaivu – Su.Sakthivel
Ulaga sevviyal mozhigalin varisaiyil tamil – V.C. Kulandaisamy (To buy click here)

To read click here (flash player required)
Valluvar padaikkum vaiyathu sorkkam – V.C. Kulandaisamy (To read click here - flash player required)
Tamil mozhiyum varalarum – Devira  (Go here and read how to buy
Tamil thiranaaivum panpaadum – Devira  (Go here and read how to buy)
Tamizhar valartha azhagu kalaigal – Mayilai seeni Vengadasamy (To buy click here)    Alternate link to buy

Ithazhiyal – Su. Sakthivel (To buy click here)
Tholkappiar kanda samudaayam – Dr. Natesan
Idhazhiyal kalai – Dr. Ma.Pa. Gurusamy (To buy click here)
Ilakkiya Marabu – Mu. Varadarasanar (To buy click here)
Sanga ilakkiyam: ilakkiya valamum vaazhviyal aramum – Dr. R. Chandrasekaran (To buy click here)
Tamilaga naatupuraviyal – Dr. Sargunavathy (To buy click here)
Silappathigara thiranaaivu – Dr. Ma.Po.Sivagnanam (To buy click here)
Silappathigara urai – Gna. Maanickavasagan (To buy click here)
Kurunthogai – Puliyoor Kesikan urai (To buy click here)
Thirukkural – Parimelazhagar urai (To buy click here)
Kumbakaruna vadhai padalam – Dr. Durai Rasaram Urai (To buy click here)
Vanakkam valluva – Erode Tamilanban (To buy click here)
Thiruppavai – C.Subramanian (To buy click here)
Kambar kaatum kumbakarnan – Arunagiri (To buy click here)
Thiruvasagam – A.Sa. Gnanasambandan (To buy click here)
Notes for second paper topics by –Devira, Sarala Rajagopalan (To buy click here)
Mozhi iyal – R. Srinivasan (To buy click here)
Tamil ilakkiya varalaru – C. Balasubramanian (To buy click here)
Tamil ilakkiya varalaru – Muthamizh chelvan (To buy click here)
Puthiya nokkil tamil ilakkiya varalaru – Tamilanban (To buy click here)
Tamilzhar nagarigamum panpaadum – Thatchinamoorthy (To buy click here)
Tamizhar varalarum panpaadum – K.K. Pillai (To read click here)
Tamil kaadhal – V. Subamanickam (To buy click here) (About this book)
Thambiyar iruvar – A.Sa. Gnanasambandan (To read click here)
Silambo silambu – Arasan Santhuvanar (To buy click here) (Alternate book click here)
Silappathigara tamizhagam – Sami Sidhambaranar
 (To buy click here)

To read all books of Dr. V.C.Kulandaisamy for free - Click here (flash player required)
If you are going to buy books from then Go here and read how to buy.

Currently we have searched and got few links, rest of the links will be updated soon!!

Saturday, April 20, 2013

Growth of Trade Unions in India - Early Stage

    In the 18th century, Indian working class were suffering from twin evils of foreign imperialism and economic exploitation at the hands of foreign as well as native capitalists. The labour markets were largely unregulated. The workers were asked to work more than 11 hours a day. There is no ban on child labour. The Indian textile Industry posed severe competition on american textiles industry due to its unregulated cheap labour. Ironically, American Lancashire textile capitalist lobby was demanding to regulate Indian labour market. In 1881, Factory Act was passed. Later similar act was passed for jute industry also. These were the first regulation of condition of workers in Factories in India.

    The first ever political strike of Indian working class was happened in Bombay. It was the time when Congress was divided into moderates and extremists factions. Tilak the congress extremist leader campaigned for anti-British movement among the workers of Bombay during 1905. Later he was arrested for sedition in 1908. After that, the impact of first world war awakened leftist ideology and the organised trade unionism had grown in India. Drawing inspiration from October Revolution in Russia and setting up of International Labour Organisation, All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) was formed in 1920 and Lala Lajpat Rai was elected as its president. Many Congress leaders maintained close relationship with trade unions many of them have presided over the AITUC meetings. During 1926, AITUC was divided into two factions, one was urging to get affiliated with International Federation of Trade Unions (Amsterdam) and other was in favour of Red International of Trade Unions (Moscow). Due to its (AITUC) communist viewpoint it was affiliated to Pan-Pacific Trade Union Secretariat (Asia Pacific branch of RITU) and The Third International at Moscow (Comitern). During 1929, N.M.Joshi seceded from AITUC and formed AITUF (federation) due to the difference with the moderate leaders. Alarmed by the increasing transfer of unions to extremist hands, Government tried to pass "Public Safety Bill" but it couldn't, then it passed it as an ordinance. The "Trade Disputes Act" made the strikes in public services like railways as illegal.

    With above backdrop came the case of "Meerut Conspiracy". Many unionists in Meerut tried to organize a strike in Indian Railways in 1929. And they were arrested for "sedition" case by Government of Lord Irwin. This case has attracted comments from many international eminent persons like Prof. Einstein, US president Roosvelt. Though this case was filed to suppress the communists in India, this case actually strengthened the communist movement in India. And provided an opportunity to spread its ideology among people. During suppression of "National Movement" Govt had arrested many working class people, this taught a lesson of unity among trade unions. In 1934, Congress Socialist Party was founded and it worked for unity between moderate and radical trade unions. During 1938, AITUC, RTUC and NFTU came together. There was a substantial growth of trade unions in India, by 1938 the number of trade union was increased to 296.

Tuesday, April 16, 2013

Nehru's criticism on Gandhian strategy as "Struggle and Truce"

    In 1919, the Rowlatt Act created opposition all over India. And this gave opportunity for M K Gandhi to get into national stage. And later Khilafat movement also merged with this movement. During 1920, M K Gandhi announced Non Cooperation Movement as a sequel of Rowlatt Act, Jalianwala Bagh massacre and Khilafat movement. This Non Cooperation movement widened the social base of the protest and Hindus and Muslims were participated together. This movement brought the government to standstill due to boycott. But due to Chauri Choura incident where many policemen were burnt alive inside police station by the protesters, this movement was suspended by M K Gandhi. And the movement failed to achieve its demands.

    Later, the non-violent civil disobedience was demonstrated in Bardoli with the demand of cancelling the increase in tax. And it proved effective. The success at Bardoli quickened the temper of Congress and during 1930 M K Gandhi started Civil Disobedience Movement with his famous Dandi march to break the Salt Law of British as a symbol of Indian people's refusal to live under the British rule. British government ruthlessly  tried to suppress the movement. And the movement was temporarily suspended due to Gandhi-Irwin pact. But with the coming of new viceroy lord Willingdon situation got reversed and Gandhi returned from Second Round Table Conference as dejected person and rejuvenated the Civil Disobedience Movement. Anyhow the tempo of the movement was slackened during 1933. Gandhi advised suspension of the movement and continuation of individual sathyagraha. However, the movement came to an end during 1934 without any result.

    Viewing these above movements, J L Nehru criticized Gandhian strategy as struggle-true... struggle-truce... without any real victory. But Gandhi had the the view that any mass movement cannot be continued indefinitely. So, when he sensed the intensity of the protest is loosing, then he went for a compromise, because morale of the participants is to be considered. So, it is better to use the truce-time for some constructive work to energize the masses.

Monday, April 15, 2013

Role of "Khudai Khidmatgar" movement in freedom struggle

    In the 'Gandhian era' of Indian National Movement, under the leadership of M K Gandhi many mass movements were organised. In 1919, Khilafat movement was led by M K Gandhi in view of uniting the two majority communities (Hindu & Muslim) of India. During that movement Hindu-Muslim unity was very good. As a sequel, Non-cooperation movement also started in 1920. But due to Chauri-chaura incident the movement was suspended abruptly. This unexpected end of the movement frustrated some of the Muslim community. After 1923, communal riots became common.

    During the Civil Disobedience Movement social base of the National Movement became wider. Students, Women, Peasants and Zamindars alike were participated in that movement. But Muslim community participation was very low. Only few of the Muslim organizations participated in this. One of such noticeable organisation was the volunteer corps of the "Khudai Khidmatdgar" led by Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan in the North-West Frontier Province. This was originally a social reform movement also called as "Red Shirts" focused on education and eliminating the blood feuds. Gradually it entered into politics and started non-violent struggle against British Raj. And Ghaffar Khan's brother Dr.Khan Sahib became chief minister in the 1937 elections.

    However, after 1940 during the quit India movement this "Khudai Khidmatgar" movement faced heavy opposition from Muslim League supporters. After 1946, Congress party agreed for partition of India and referendum was held in North-West Frontier Province to decide whether NWFP wants to join Pakisthan or not. The Khudai Khidmatgar movement was abstained from voting in referendum and eventually NWFP became part of Pakisthan. After partition this movement was banned.

Saturday, April 13, 2013

Chittagong Armoury Raid - Binod Bihari Chowdri

    It was the time when number of leftist thinkers started occupying Indian National Congress. The Indian National Movement started to take a socialist orientation. It was about 12 days after Gandhi had broken the British Salt Tax, a revolutionary moment took place in Bengal. The revolutionaries are the people who were not satisfied with Moderates as well as Extremist methods of Indian National Congress. It was 10 PM 18 Apr 1930, a group of ten men led by Ganesh Ghosh had captured the police armoury and as per plan another group led by Lokenath Bal had captured the Auxiliary Forces armoury. The telephone and telegraph wire were cut, so that the train movement was disrupted. The next step was to kill the Europeans at their club's headquarters. But it was Good Friday most of the Europeans were at their home and called backup troops from Calcutta, this was not expected by the revolutionary group. Through this raid the revolutionaries had captured the European club's headquarters in the Name of Indian Republican Army, Chittagong Branch. Surya sen or Masterda took the military salute outside the headquarters and the group marched towards the hills for safety.

    Soon after few days the revolutionaries were surrounded by the British troops. Some of them (Pritilata Waddedar) consumed cynade to avoid arrest, few (Harigopal Bal) were killed by the British troops and the rest were tried and punished. The leader Masterda was brutally tortured before hanged. After serving their sentences few of the group members (Binod Bihari Chowdhury, Lokenath Bal) were joined in Indian National Congress and few of them (Kalpana Datta, Ganesh Ghosh, Ambika Chakrabarty, Ananta Lal Sinha, Subodh Roy) joined Communist Party of India.

    Today (i.e., 10 Apr 2013) one of the group member of "Chittagong Armoury Raid", Binod Bihari Chowdhury has passed away. During partition he stayed back in East Pakisthan and in 2000 he was conferred with Independence Day Award one of the highest civilian award in Bangladesh.

Thursday, April 11, 2013

The name "Lord Rippon" enshrined in the hearts of Indian Nationalists - Ilbert Bill

    After 1858, to generate faith among the people in British Crown Indian Judicial System was reformed. Indian High Courts Act 1861 was passed and the act merged the Sadr Diwani Adalat and Sadr Nizamat Adalat and established High Courts in Calcutta, Bombay, Madras. And the Privy Council continued to be the highest court of appeal for India. The Civil Procedure Code and Criminal Procedure Code were also enacted in 1860 and 1861 respectively. These codes continue to be the basis for Indian legal system till date. 

    Despite the above reforms there were many defects in the Indian judicial system.
  1. The revenue officer continue to act as a judge in Ryotwari provinces.
  2. There was no clear separation between judiciary and executive.
  3. The English and Europeans continued to enjoy special previleges.
Because of the defects, the Indian judges whatsoever their capabilities and qualifications could not trial European accused. To rectify this in 1883, Lord Rippon has proposed Ilbert bill which sought to abolish the judicial disqualifications based on racial distinction. After being passed by provincial governments, it was introduced in Imperial Legislative Council. Meanwhile oppositions to this bill grew. The English newspaper "Spectator" published - "Would you like to live in country where at any moment your wife would be liable to be sentenced on false charge of slapping an 'ayah' to three days imprisonment, the magistrate being copper coloured pagan who probably worships the Linga and certainly exalts an opportunity of showing that he can insult white persons with impunity". And obviously the provisions of the bill was watered down. And the modified version of the bill authorized the Sessions Judges and District Magistrates to try European offenders with the right to demand trial by a jury of 12 members of which half of them should be European or American. So, this controversy confirmed that Indians cannot be treated on par with Europeans.

    Unhappy with modifications in the bill, Lord Rippon tendered his resignation in 1884 and has ever since enshrined his name in the hearts of the nationalist party in India as great champion of their cause of the viceregal throne. And after two years in 1885 the Indian National Congress was founded and the nationalist movement began to take shape.

Monday, April 8, 2013

Education during British rule

    For the East India Company 'educating Indians' was not an interest area. In earlier time Company supported the oriental learning. In 1781, Warren Hasting founded Calcutta Madarasa. In 1784 and 1791, the Asiatic Society and Sanskirit College was founded. There was a pressure from Christian missionaries to introduce Christianity and English education in India, but it was turned down. In 1800, Wellesley established Fort William College in Calcutta. The "charter act of 1813" provided a lakh rupees for improvement in literature and promotion of knowledge in science among Indians. Anyway this fund was kept unspent till 1823. Meanwhile many initiatives were taken by missionaries and others to bring in modern education. Robert Mayo, a missionary established a school in Chinsura. In 1817, Hindu College was established, which was the brain child of Raja Rammohan Roy and David Hare. After that, many institutions and societies were formed to promote modern liberal education. In 1818, "Calcutta school society" was formed with three-fold policy, 1. Supervise the limited number of model schools. 2. Improving existing indigenous schools. 3. Facilitate learning in English at higher education. Early in 1814, Thomson - a missionary proposed first comprehensive plan for education in Bengal, but in vain. 

    In 1823, General Committee of Public Instruction was formed. Till then, company's policy was in favor of oriental learning. But under the influence of James Mill, Court of Directors sent a Despatch, which favored western education. In 1829, Govt. policy declared that English should be the public business language eventually. Bentinck convinced that English is the key to all improvement. He was supported by James Mill and Rammohan Roy. In 1834, Macaulay arrived as a law member in Governor General's Council and made the indecent comment about oriental learning - "A single shelf of a good European library was worth the whole literature of India and Arabia". In 1835, Bentinck took the resolution that Govt's object should be promoting English literature and science and the funds would be used in English education alone. This resolution gave impetus to Education in India and many colleges were founded (Calcutta Medical College, Elphinstone Institution of Bombay, Hooghly college). In 1837, Persian language was replaced by English as official language. In districts, vernaculars and English were replaced the Persian language. In 1842, the General Committee on Public Instruction was replaced by powerful Council of Education. In 1844, English became the passport for public employment.

    In 1854, the famous "Wood's Despatch" was laid down. It is considered as th Magna Carta of English education in India. The recommendations were, 

  1. Its government's responsibility to safeguard educational interests of Indians.
  2. The aim of educational system is to produce trustworthy men for holding office  (clerks) under the Company.
  3. English should be used as the medium of language, but not in all levels. English should be used only when people have gained sufficient knowledge in it.
  4. Study of Indian language should be encouraged to make Govt-people communication easier.
  5. Abandoned the Filtration Theory of Macaulay - "Education should be imparted to upper classes only and it would automatically filter down to lower masses"
  6. System of grants-in-aid for education was introduced.
  7. At lower level - vernacular education, then Anglo-Vernacular High Schools and affiliated colleges at district level.
  8. Emphasis on vocational training in agriculture, medicine and teaching ...etc.
  9. Special facilities for femal education.
  10. Introducing comprehensive scholarships for deserving.
  11. Establishment of universities in India on the pattern of London University.
  12. Dept. of Public Instruction under the Director General of Education.
This scheme was criticized on the grounds that it was a slavish imitation of English model and this scheme makes education as a routine matter of administration. However, this system laid foundation for English education in India and continued as a base for next five decades.

Okay, to remember the above things in order....
First - Phase of oriental learning - Asiatic Society & Sanskirit College
Second - 1 lakh for Indian education- Charter act 1813, but still nothing happens
Third - Private initiatives and missionary efforts to bring liberal English education
Fourth - General Committee on Public Instruction and James Mill for western education
Fifth - Macualay comes, English to be official language
Lastly - Woods Despatch. :-)

Saturday, April 6, 2013

"Buxar confirmed the decisions of Plassey"

    V A Smith, a historian and an indologist, in his writings tells us that the Buxar war completed the work of Plassey. Lets analyse the facts which led him to conclude this way.

The battle of Plassey: 
    The name Plassey is angliced version of Palashi, a place situated on the bank of Bagirathi. In this place in 1757, war between the British and the Nawab of Bengal was happened. First, in 1756, Siraj-ud-daula became Nawab of the Bengal. His relation with the British strained due to their support to the revalary Shaukat Jung who claimed the throne. The previleges conferred to the British were misused by them which led to loss of revenue to the Nawab. The Nawab has prohibited British from fortifying their settlements. Because of these reasons Robert Clive wanted to do away with the Nawab and conspired with Mir Jafar, the commenter-in-chief of the Nawab army. As a result war happened in Plassey. And Mir Jafar became the Nawab.

    But Mir Jafar could not manage the heavy demand for money from the British. Soon he was also ditched by the British and Mir Kasim, the son-in-law of Nawab came to the throne. Mir Kasim was a talented person and he was not acted like puppet of British. He reorganised troops, set up factories to manufacture arms, strengthened financial position and he stopped the company personnel from doing illegal private trade. So the British defeated him and reinstated Mir Jafar to the throne.

The battle of Buxar:

    Mir Kasim got shelter in Oudh. And he conspired with Nawab of Oudh and Mughal Emperor Sha Alam II to defeat the British. In 1764, the battle was fought at Buxar and ultimately the British won. Through this war the Mughal Emperor also was defeated. The British acquired commanding position in north west Bengal and got connection with upper India.

    The battle Plassey was a conspiracy of the British. Through that the British wanted to keep the Nawab as figurehead and the wanted to hold the real power. But the Buxar war proved their military superiority and confirmed the company's rule upon Bengal. And also in 1765, Clive came to a settlement with the Mughal emperor and Nawab of Oudh which is know as reaty of Allahabad. Through that British obtained Diwani rights over Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. Thus, Buxar has completed the work of Plassey.

Friday, April 5, 2013

The year of Great Divide - Population of India

    In general, impact of economic growth in an economy on the population will show following behavior,

1. High rate of birth and High rate of deaths - Low population growth (under-developed)
2. High rate of birth and Low rate of deaths - High population growth (developing)
3. Low rate of birth and Low rate of deaths - Low population growth (developed)

    In a country like India, where the children are considered as assets, rate of birth tend to be high. But at the same time, due to low economic growth health services will be lower. So that there will be high death rates also.

    In due course of time, after achieving certain level of economic growth, the health services would be accessible to people. So, that the country will show high rate of births and low rate of deaths.

    After achieving good level of economic growth and better literacy rate, people tend to have less children. So, there will be low rate of births and low rate of deaths.

    The year 1921 is a "year of the great divide" in the demographic history of India when mortality started to decline leading to acceleration in the rate of population growth . During the next three decades (1921-51) the rate of population growth continued at a level of over one per cent per annum. The slight dip in the growth rate in 1941-51 partly reflects the Bengal famine of 1942-43 and dislocation,-, due to the partition of India in 1947. After independence the rate of population growth accelerated considerably because of extension of public health services. The growth rate was at its peak in the period 1961-81 with the popu lation growing at a rate of 2.2 per cent per annum. The decade 1971-81 is a turning point in that fertility started declining and continued to decline every year thereafter. during the decade 1981-91 the rate of population growth declined from 2.2 per cent per annum to 2.1 per cent. Though the decline is a welcome sign the pace of decline is not enough to ease the relent less pressure on social services. The population has crossed the one billion mark in 2001. There are sharp regional variations. Another feature of the growth of population in India is the absolute size of its increase in the decade of 1981-91 India added 163 million people: an incremental population almost equal to the population of Indonesia, the fifth most populous country of the world. India adds every year a population almost equal to that of Australia. Given a population increase of this magnitude it would be difficult to provide even rudimentary social services despite best efforts


    The observation from the above graph shows that the population in India started steadily increasing from 1921. And continued to increase, that is the sign of India entering into the second stage of population growth. It is long way for India for stepping into the third phase of population growth, i.e., low growth. Despite India's economic growth, population is keep on increasing. 

Census 2011
    As per the 2011 census, there are 181 million people (~Brazil's total population) added to Indian population. There is another noteworthy point, i.e., after 1911-1921, 2001-11 is the first decade that has added lesser population than previous decades. If this behavior continues, then India will enter into the third phase within few more decades.

Tuesday, April 2, 2013

Poverty Alleviation, Employment Generation and Social Protection

    The universally accepted standard way of measuring growth is the Human Development Index. As per the latest Human Development Report from United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), HDI for India is 0.554 and it ranks 136 out of 187 countries. As we know, HDI is being measured on the basis of capabilities like *to live long healthy life, *to be knowledgeable, *to enjoy decent economic standard of life. Here, if we focus on the aspect of decent economic standard of life, it is necessary to have a decent income to achieve it.

    From HDR 2010, poverty has been measured in terms of Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) which measures intensity of deprivation in terms of living standards, health and education. India has an unfavorable MPI of 0.296. If we use this indicator instead of national poverty line then the population below poverty line widens substantially.

    Apart from Human Development and Poverty, we have our labour force also increasing which means that pace of job/livelihood creation must be accelerated. During 2010, only 15.6% of total workforce were in organised sector whereas 33.5% were casual workers and 51% were self-employed. This means that majority of workforce is in unorganised sector. To achieve inclusive development, several programmes on poverty alleviation and employment generation are being implemented by Government of India. Some of them are,

  2. Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY)
  3. Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana

And also some of the social protection schemes are,

  1. Aam Admi Bima Yojana (AABY)
  2. National Social Security Fund
  3. Bilateral Social Security Agreements
    It is a livelihood security enhancing programme which provides 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household where an adult member of the family volunteer to do unskilled manual work. The objective of the programme is to augment wage employment and also focusing on the works that address drought, deforestation and soil erosion. Initially, in 2006 it was started at 200 districts and then expanded to further 130 districts. And also the wage under this programme was increased from Rs. 65 to Rs. 120 in 2011-12.

   This has led to increase in purchasing power of the people, decrease in distress immigration and also increased bargaining power of the agricultural labourers. Anyway, the implementation could have been better with focused planning and capacity building of Panchayat Raj Institutions.

   This programme also sought for 1/3 participation of women. But the share of women in generated person-days is 48%, i.e., more than expected.

    Some major initiatives for the effective implementation of this programme being, 1. Service delivery framework using ICT for better transparency and accountability. 2. Providing wage rate of Rs. 100 per day as an entitlement and developing an index for fixing wage rate and its periodic revision.

Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana:
    This is a self-employment programme to help poor families to cross the poverty line by providing bank credit and government subsidy, so that they can involve in income generating activities. It is envisaged that 50% of this programme should go to SC/ST and 40% to women. Under this programme each district of the country to have Rural Self Employment Training Institute for basic skill development.

   Now this programme has been restructured as NRLM (National Rural Livelihood Mission) and its salient features are,
  • At least one member of the family (preferably a woman) to be brought under SHG network.
  • By setting up strong SHGs, reducing their external dependencies.
  • Continuous capacity building of the stakeholders (SHG, NGOs...)
  • Subsidies to be available in terms of funds and capital subsidies to cover their long term credit needs and short term consumption needs.
  • Universal financial inclusion - in case head of the family or earning member natural death 30,000/- accidental death 75,000/- for total permanent disability 75,000/- and for partial disability 37,500/- .
Janashree Bima Yojana:
    Launched in 2000, for rural, urban persons living below poverty line, (18-59 years of age) and 45 identified occupations. This scheme provides cover in case of natural death 30,000/- accidental death 75,000/- for total permanent disability 75,000/- and for partial disability 37,500/- .

Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY):
    Launched in 2007, this scheme provides smart card based, cashless healthcare of 30,000/- per family (5) per annum. The state center sharing will be 75:25 except kashmir and north-east (90:10).

Unorganised Workers Social Security Act 2008:
    Launched in 2009, Providing social security to unorganised workers.

Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana:
    Launched in 1997, to provide gainful employment to urban unemployed and under employed by encouraging them to setup self-employment ventures or provision for wage employment. This scheme subsumed earlier ones like Urban Self Employment Programme (USEP), Urban Woman Self-help Programme (UWSP), Skill Training for Employment Promotion amongst Urban Poor (STEP UP), Urban Wage Employment Programme (UWEP) and Urban Community Development Network (UCDN).

Social Protection
    As we stated earlier, the share of informal workforce is high. The following programmes are focusing on providing social security to them.

Aam Admi Bima Yoajana (AABY):
    Launched in 2007, provides natural as well as accidental cover. Security Board was setup in 2009 and it has recommended the schemes like RSBY , JBY and Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS for old age pensions) to be extended to construction workers, MGNREGA workers, Asha workers...etc.

National Social Security Fund:
    For the unorganized sector workers.

Bilateral Social Security Agreements:
    In case of posting in any third country, the workers will be exempted from social security contribution, totalisation of contribution period and exportability of pension in case od relocation to home country. Currently this agreement has been made with Belgium, Switzerland, Netherlands, Denmark and Norway.